From Epiphany to Maslenitsa - it's time for weddings. According to Alexander Chernykh, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Researcher of the Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, all Christmas games and fortune-telling are not only a desire to look into the future, but also ensuring a quick marriage. Why and on Christmastide they wondered more and more about suitors. In the material "AiF-Prikamye" - how weddings were played in the old days.
Matchmakers must be professionals
Marina Sizova, "AiF-Prikamye": Alexander Vasilyevich, when did our ancestors play weddings?
Alexander Chernykh: Now they love to play weddings in the summer: in the fresh air and in fine weather. But in the old days, weddings in the summer - at the peak of agricultural work - were not done. On this occasion, they usually said, they say, in the summer only the lazy plays a wedding. In posts - you can not. There were two periods left: from Epiphany to Maslenitsa (from January 19 to March 1, when not all harvest supplies were over) and from Intercession to Christmas fast (from October 14 to November 28, when the harvest was harvested and there was something to serve on the wedding table). The birth rate statistics could also be traced very clearly. Plus nine months to these periods - a surge in the birth rate.
- How did the weddings play?
- Weddings of the poor and the rich differed only in scope. Wedding rituals for the Russians of the Perm Territory are a whole folk drama and even a folk opera. This is a large and clear scenario and many actors: the groom, the bride, matchmakers, big boyars, friends, friends, carriages, bed matchmakers, thousand, etc. Some features of the wedding ritual have been preserved by our modern wedding. But a lot has passed since the middle of the 20th century.
- Let's step by step. Matchmaking first?
- Today, matchmaking is to confront parents with the fact that young people are getting married. Previously, as a rule, the decision about the wedding was made not by the young, but by the parents. But the children could still agree or not. At first, matchmakers were sent to persuade the bride's parents. And they had to be professionals, because it largely depended on them whether there was a wedding or not. This was followed by an agreement on the wedding (glances, handshake), when there is no turning back. We discussed the wedding, the dowry - and after the hand, they began to prepare for the wedding. First, there was a bachelorette party.
What bachelor party? He was absent!
- How was the bachelorette party?
- A bachelorette party is one of the main preparatory stages of a wedding. It lasted up to a month.
- Why so long?
- This is not only a ritual preparation, when girls gather, rehearse the course of the wedding, sing along - sing wedding songs. First of all, it is material preparation. During the bachelorette party, the girls prepare a dowry. The bride must sew a shirt, pants, plus clothes for the father-in-law, mother-in-law for the groom. She must bring tablecloths, towels, pillows, blankets, curtains to the groom's house. Preparing for marriage, the girl weaved a lot of canvases, but she and her friends will sew this on the eve of the wedding. Before that, she did not know what size the groom would have, how long he needed to sew his pants. Therefore, there are a lot of things to do at the hen party. They embroidered, cut, sewed. The girls, by the way, were not actually invited to the wedding at all, the bachelorette party was taken away, on the wedding day the groom arrived, bought and took the bride away, and the girls stayed in the bride's house, the bride's parents fed the girls, and they no longer go to the big wedding. A week before the wedding, they sometimes arranged drinking, drinking, "drinking the bride on drink." Sometimes this period of the wedding ceremony coincided with the engagement.
- And at the bachelor party, what did the groom and his friends do?
- There were no bachelor parties in Perm traditions. Because they didn't need to prepare for the wedding. The groom could come to a bachelorette party - with gifts to the party.And on the last day before the wedding, the betrothal usually took place, which was attended by the groom, the bride and close relatives.
And I recognize the darling by the hairstyle
- How could you tell a girl from a married woman?
- Previously, the status of a woman could be easily recognized by her hair styling and headdress. On the eve of the wedding, the girls went to the bathhouse and for the last time they braided a girl's braid for the bride. In Kuedinsky district, for example, in the bathhouse, the bride must have thrown soap, or sprinkled water "backwards". It was believed that the girl who got water or soap would be the next to marry. A girl could wear one braid, a married woman would braid her hair in two braids and put it around her head. And she never showed her hair to strangers again. Headdresses in the Kama region - kokoshniks, shamshurs, warriors, collections, magpies, dressed, depending on which area, the wedding was played. Divorced people were called "razzhenny", they could have another hairstyle: hair tucked into a kultyshka. This is no longer a girl, and not married. Many colored ribbons are braided into the last braid, which the bride then distributes to her friends - she will no longer need them. The next day, the actual wedding and the arrival of the groom.
- What is the role of the groom at the wedding?
- The groom came on horseback for the bride. He and the bride had rather passive roles: where they put them, where they take them, they stand there. The main organizers at the wedding are the groom's friends, boyfriends, and also the thousand. They ransom the bride. And then the whole wedding procession moves to the groom's house - the so-called "big table" awaits them. And the wedding actually begins. Downy matchmakers bring the bride's dowry - all this is shown to the guests.
- What were the outfits?
- Boys wear any festive clothes. The girls are wearing colored sundresses. The most difficult thing in a wedding dress is the bride's headdress. He could be alone in the whole village. Richly decorated with colored chicken feathers, mother-of-pearl, pearls, beads. Later, wreaths with wax flowers appeared. They lived to see Soviet times.
- There are a million more traditions at the wedding …
- Whoever first bit off the bread when meeting in the groom's house will be the boss. When a young woman enters the groom's house, she watches - it blows warm or cold: this is how the groom's relatives will treat her. What kind of matchmaker will braid a braid forward: if from the side of the bride - a girl will be born, from the side of the groom - a boy. These are just a few.
- Didn't you hang the sheets after the wedding night?
- In some places they put a filthy bucket (from under the sink) on the table with a wedding wreath, if the bride is dishonest. If you are honest, they beat the dishes in the morning.
- How long did the wedding itself last?
- The Russian wedding feast even today lasts at least two days, and in the past it lasted for three days. And there were also "snacks" - everyone who was at the wedding should invite the young people to dinner. The newlyweds could eat for about a month at the guests, who gave gifts - dishes, bed linen, sheep, calves. The wedding ceremony of this first wedding period on Shrovetide ends. On Shrovetide, young people are shown in their best clothes. On Shrovetide, young people, those who have married and got married this year, often become the center of all holiday customs. The famous "mother-in-law pancakes" are also from Shrovetide and post-wedding rituals.
- And what did you feed the guests? Were there any special wedding meals?
- The Russian wedding feast today lasts no less than two days, and in the past it lasted for three days. The main wedding table in many traditions was called "large tables". Some of the dishes that completed the wedding stood out.
Among the interesting wedding customs of the feast is the accelerating porridge. In the village of Kurasham, Perm region, a feast at the bride's house, when the groom came for her with the wedding train, ended when porridge was served on the table, in which the friends put their spoons.Until the end of the feast, the porridge was hidden, since if the wedding participants from the groom's side found porridge ahead of time and put spoons in it, the feast was considered complete and the bride was taken to the crown without singing glorious songs, without giving gifts and ransom. In the northern Kama region, gingerbread was often the last to be served - which was also often called accelerating.
- A wedding is a form of marriage registration …
- Before, no one was interested in whether you have a stamp in your passport, the main thing is for the whole village to see that you were at the wedding. By the way, besides the guests, there were also gazers at the festival, they are goggles. They were not invited, but they could not be kicked out. All the guests of honor are at the table, and they are at the walls - watching how the wedding is going on, what kind of dowry the bride has. It is unrealistic to seat a hundred guests at a peasant house.
- Is the wedding a must?
- Previously, yes. The bride brought to church with her - a towel, tablecloth, soap, and then took it home and kept it for a long time. It was believed that they would have sacred properties, and then you can heal children with them.
You can become a wife only after a few years
- Is the Finno-Ugric wedding different from the Russian one?
- Wedding folklore among the Permian Komi as a whole is almost all Russian. Except, perhaps, crying, which is performed in the Permian Komi language. In the Perm Territory, the ceremonies corresponded to the North Russian wedding ceremonies. Our Russian wedding differs from the South Russian one more than from the Komi-Perm one. And the weddings of the Udmurts and Mari do not look like Russian. For example, they only invite and come to a Mari wedding in pairs. And festive tables are set in every home of the one who came to the wedding. A wedding is not an event for one family, but for a whole clan.
Among the Udmurts, several years passed between the first and last stages of the wedding ceremony. At the end of the 19th century, Nikolai Tezyakov (Russian doctor, public figure - Ed.) Writes: “Having seized a bride, the groom, until he pays the kalym, freely enters the house of his bride as a husband. Quite often the bride will have time to give birth to one or two children, while her groom pays the kalym”. Only after paying the ransom, the groom could transport the bride to his parents' house.
- Does Tatarskaya have even more differences? - Among the wedding customs of the Perm Tatars is the groom's guesting at the bride's house before she moved to the groom's house. The groom's friends also took an active part in the hosting. For the arrival of the young, a bed was made, on which they laid as many featherbeds as the young could spend the night in the bride's house. One of the featherbeds was cleaned after each night.
- What wedding traditions are observed now?
- There are still wedding traditions. Some come from antiquity, some we perceived quite recently. Of course, without culture, without traditions and customs, it is impossible to imagine the life of society. In the past, of course, it was not discussed whether they should be observed or not - it was impossible in another way. Today we are more individual and choose how to play the wedding ourselves.